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Types of Heart Surgeries

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Heart Surgeries

These days heart ailments and rate of heart attacks has increased a lot especially after one reaches the age of 40. This is all because of unhealthy lifestyle, bad food habits and mostly obesity. So, if one starts facing any kind of heart issues then they immediately should see a doctor. There are best cardiologists in India who can be of great help when one is suffering from any kind of heart diseases.

There are different types of surgeries followed by surgeons depending on what type of problem a patient is having and here are some common types of heart surgeries explained.

Open Heart Surgery

This is a process where the chest has to be opened so that the problems inside can be rectified. Surgeons may have to go for an open heart surgery but this is a very commonly performed heart surgery across the world.

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

This is another form of common surgery which is done to treat some severe coronary heart disease and it happens when there is build up of plaques inside the arteries. In case of CABG a healthy artery of the vein is connected to the blocked coronary artery. This proper functioning vein can be taken from the patient’s leg and they can be stitched to the coronary artery and the aorta. There is another method that is used where one takes the internal mammary artery and then relocates it from the chest wall to the coronary artery.  Here, the grafted artery or the vein goes around the blocked part of the coronary artery by creating a bypass. A surgeon can easily create bypass for more than one blocked coronary artery during the time of surgery.

Tran myocardial Laser Revascularization or TMR

It is a procedure which is mainly performed to treat angina and it only happens when no other forms of treatment works. Here, a small incision is done in the chest so that the heart muscles are exposed and then high laser energy is used to make 1 millimetre wide channels inside the heart. Here, the outer areas of the channels are closed but the inner are remains opened so that the blood flow gets improved. There are also some medical studies that show that this surgery helps the heart to grow some new and tiny blood vessels which can relieve the angina.

Heart Valve Repair or Replacement

In many cases, it is also known as an open heart operation. Here, the surgeon opens the chest and heart and then removes the damaged valve and then sew a prosthetic one in that place. There are some cases where the valve can be easily replaced through a very small incision near to the breast bone.

Heart Transplant

It is a type of surgery where the patient’s diseased heart is removed and then it is replaced with a good and functioning heart from a deceased donor. This surgery is mainly done on people who are suffering from end stage heart failure and their heart is much damaged.

Arrhythmia Treatment

Sometimes they are harmless but at times they can be seriously life threatening. If one has an abnormal heart rate then they may not pump enough blood to the body and it may damage the brain and other organs of the body as well. In some cases arrhythmia problems are treated with a pacemaker which is a very small device that is placed under the skin of the chest. This small device sends some electrical pulses so that the heart beat remains happening at a normal rate. Another thing to treat arrhythmia is an ICD or cardio verter defibrillator which is also placed under the skin of the chest area and it monitors the heart continuously so that it can sense serious damage if it is there.

Aneurysm Repair

This is a bulging or an out pouching portion of the blood vessel which can happen anywhere in the human body but it can become dangerous when it happens at the aorta. This happens when the artery wall weakens and the blood moving through the artery can cause the aneurysm burst and it can also lead to some fatal bleeding inside the body. The dilated part of the vessel gets removed and replaced with a graft, or synthetic material that will not break.

Angioplasty

It is again a minimally invasive process which is mainly done to widen the narrowed or the obstructed veins and arteries. Here, the deflated balloon is attached to the catheter and then passed over a guide wire into the narrow vessel. Then it is inflated to fix the size. Sometimes, a stent is inserted to make sure the vessel remains open, then the balloon gets deflated and removed.

Cardiomyoplasty

It is a surgical procedure which takes the healthy muscles from the other parts of the body and mostly from the patient’s back and then it gets wrapped around the heart to provide some support. Then sometimes a special pacemaker is also inserted in order to make the skeletal muscle contract.

Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery

It is mainly performed to do some bypass and then to insert pacemakers or some heart valve replacement. Here, as the name suggests, the chest is not fully cut but instead of that a small incision is made in the right side of the chest. Then the surgeon gets to operate in between the ribs. Here, the patients feel less pain and get quick recovery than from open heart surgery.

But no matter what type of surgery one faces, there is a post recovery time that everyone has to face. In that period one has to follow every step just mentioned by the surgeon and they also need to follow a proper diet which will keep their heart healthy after surgery. Also one needs to do certain exercises as well in order to stay fit. In some cases, surgeon may also continue some medication even after the surgery and one may have to follow that for a long course of time.

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